Creating Tomorrow's Manufacturing
ATP Products: Custom Products
Times change. Markets change. Products wear out - at least with respect to their original usefulness. What is a person or business to do?
Applied Technology Products' primary operational goal is the application of science and technology to the creation of new products for internal use and external sale. In addition, ATP creates new products for external clients to fill unmet needs, exploit unused resources, or develop new business opportunities. ATP has designed many custom products, many in the transportation and transportation safety fields.
An important part of ATP's design process seeks to identify currently unused or unwanted resources that can be incorporated into new product design, construction, or development as a means of increasing the new product's sustainability.
Many of ATP's products and projects are proprietary, making it difficult to disclose the details of the products. At the same time, it is important to demonstrate in detail the kind of work that ATP does in the development of a product. For this reason, upon request, ATP provides design and modeling information for a general aviation deicing product design created in response to a NASA Small Business Innovation Research Grant request. The materials provided upon request include the NASA grant proposal and a software model of the device that accomplishes detailed calculations projecting the device's operational characteristics.
Whether starting from new or incorporating existing assets or unwanted materials, ATP can design a product to meet your needs. ATP will tailor the design of the new products, service, or system to meet your needs, suit your business paradigm, and utilize existing resources. ATP is especially interested in developing solutions that convert unwanted or 'waste' materials into useful resources.
Applied Technology Products can rapidly create innovative new products to address your needs, fill your market niche or utilize your manufacturing capability or unwanted asset stream. Tell us about your needs and we will create something truly new and exciting to address them.
Contact ATP to learn more about custom products, especially if you have underutilized, unused, or unwanted assets - let us know what you need or are interested in - chances are we can make it happen!Top |< < > >| End
ATP Products: Product Design
One of Applied Technology Products' assets is the ability to design new solutions to a wide variety of problems, especially in areas involving aerospace, communications, the environment, medicine, science, and technology. While ATP employs a number of processes to design new products including a classical design process in which a new development in science or technology is applied to a real or perceived need, ATP prefers to employ design processes that aim to create 'synthetic' solutions, which meet a number of needs simultaneously.
ATP's 'synthetic' design process begins with the identification of strong, unmet market forces (defined by ATP as a 'market vacuum') and/or the identification of currently unused or underutilized resource stream(s) (defined by ATP as a 'resource runoff'). Ideally, synthetic design solutions employ one or more resource runoffs to enter one or more market vacuums.
A good example of a market vacuum is the absence of low cost alternative energy sources, especially in the context of the earth's atmosphere's increasingly apparent overload of 'greenhouse' gasses such as carbon dioxide. Similarly, a good example of a resource runoff is a daily supply of used windows being landfilled - no matter what their level of function - instead of being recycled.
However, it is not enough that the designed process, product, or system fill market needs, utilize 'waste' components or function as planned. A successful design process must also yield products that are easy to construct, suitably repairable, economical to operate, and that can be manufactured and brought to market with viable cost, price, and profit dynamics. Furthermore, successful designs often include attention to a number of concerns not always considered during the design process, such as marketing, launch, and product and market lifecycle.
Although they can be more difficult to develop, synthetics designs are more likely to be successful and often offer more attractive potential profit predictions. In one synthetic design example, ATP proposed developing a business to...
1. create local jobs,
2. manufacture an alternative energy product to meet local needs initially and wider needs eventually,
3. rescue viable resources destined for 'landfill,'
4. supply local businesses and homes with a low cost source of renewable energy,
5. allow evolutionary product development, and
6. act as a spring board to larger projects.
ATP enjoys attempting to create synthetic solutions within narrow initial conditions and ATP is extremely interested in designing products or exploring projects capable of taking advantage of existing assets such as unused, unwanted, or waste assets and/or under or unutilized manufacturing capability or space. If you have an idle manufacturing environment, unwanted but viable waste stream, or other potentially useful resource you would like to turn into a productive asset, ATP hopes you will give us the chance to propose a solution to meet your specialized needs, or contact us to make us aware of available assets.
Contact ATP for help with the design of your perfect product.
ATP Products: Product Development
Although many might dispute the idea that conceiving a product and completing its design is the 'easy' part, those with experience attemtping to bring products to market probably would not. There is more to creating successful products than coming up with an idea, building a prototype, and launching manufacturing operations. Countless opportunities for problems throughout the product development timeline threaten to derail the product development process, the success for which is often highly dependent upon correctly timing the release of the product into the market.
Successful navigation of the product development lifecycle is an art and a science, consisting of iterative identification and timely application of numerous disciplines and resulting in the unit adequate launch of a needed, functional, reliable, and cost effective product, price, location, and time registered with a growing need for the product, the initiation of the marketing campaign, and the arrival and availability for sale of a sufficient number of deliverable units in the correct marketplaces.
ATP can help you with any of the iterative and parallel product development steps partially listed below, enjoys assisting in their orchestration, and has experience using Unified Markup Language in product development.
Product Design Assessment
Applied Technology Products expands upon its product design abilities by performing product development services as well, including product evaluation, marketing plan design, prototyping, functional valadation, and quality assurance.
If you have a product or service in need of development, please contact us.
Introduction to Flow Cytometry
An Electronic Book in PDF Format
Limited time offer!
Download Introduction to Flow Cytometry FREE!
Introduction to Flow Cytometry
Are you interested in quickly learning the basics of flow cytometry, an important and rapidly developing area of instrumental biology, quickly and in the privacy of your own home?
Have you always wondered how to efficiently, accurately, and precisely gather data from populations of biological cells?
Have you spent time pondering the technical basis of cell sorting - or tried to figure out how to get a machine to perform sequential analyses of individual cells?
If your answer to any of these questions is 'yes,' ATP hopes you will enjoy Introduction to Flow Cytometry!
What is Introduction to Flow Cytometry?
Introduction to Flow Cytometry is an electronic book and educational .pdf file specifically designed to assist students understand the biology, chemistry, physics, theory, instrumentation, and practice of flow cytometry. Since modern pdf readers are capable of text-to-speech functions, Introduction to Flow Cytometry can be listened to as well as read.
Thank you for your interest in Introduction to Flow Cytometry. If you still have not made your decision about downloading, please peruse the detailed information below.
Chapter 1, Page 12, sample introduction.
1.1 WHAT IS FLOW CYTOMETRY?
The process of flow cytometry is a synthesis of many technologies. Chemical tissue disruption and fluorescent labels provide the ability to separate and label cells and their characteristics for study. Fluid dynamics provides rapid delivery of individual cells into a small region for sensing. Laser light sources and optics illuminate the cells and excite their photochemical labels. Photosensors and electronics create electronic signals that are proportional to the characteristics of each cell. Computer data collection and software data analysis perform statistical analysis and display the population's properties revealed by the characteristics of each of its members. Finally, computer and electronic control systems use the physical principles of piezoelectricity, fluid dynamics, and electricity and magnetism to sort subpopulations. A block diagram of a flow cytometer is shown in Figure 1.1.
Flow cytometry is a process that senses the characteristics of each cell in the population, stores data about each cell, and displays data about the population as a histogram. This process allows the rapid creation of an accurate graph of population data in an afternoon that might take months with conventional microscopic or biochemical methods. This is especially important in the analysis of tissues such as tumors and blood that contain large numbers of cells. In addition, the study of a wide variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cells is possible.
Chapter 1, Page 19-20, sample overview.
1.4 THE FOUR SYSTEMS OF FLOW CYTOMETRY
Construction of flow cytometers varies with each manufacturer, but all flow cytometers have a group of common functions. This section discusses these common functions in the context of four interdependent systems described above: the delivery system, the illumination and detection system, the data collection and analysis system, and the sorting system. Block diagrams of each of these systems are found at the beginning of each part of this book.
1.4.1 THE COMPLETE CYTOMETER
Modern flow cytometers are complex instruments consisting of a synthesis of many individual components. A block diagram of a laser based flow cytometer is shown in Figure 1.1. Successful operation of flow cytometers involves a variety of complex tasks including the correct design of cytometric studies, actual operation of the instrument, the collection of data, and the interpretation of data. To accomplish these tasks, the operator must understand how physical processes, biochemical techniques, and cellular morphology interact with the hardware components of the cytometer to yield data.
1.4.2 THE DELIVERY SYSTEM
To prepare a population for analysis, each cell must be separated from other cells in the population through the creation of a single cell suspension. A single cell suspension is a liquid containing only individual cells. In a fluid tissue such as blood, the natural state of the sample is a single cell suspension. In this context, the operator usually separates the unwanted cells (such as red cells) from desired cells (such as white cells) prior to analysis. In contrast, the separation of cells from a solid tissue such as a tumor requires filtration, enzymatic digestion, or mechanical disruption. When tissues are solid, the addition of a liquid aids in the analysis of the population by providing a medium for transportation.
Usually, the liquids that suspend and transport cells in flow cytometry are isotonic. The isotonic liquid provides a chemically neutral media for the transportation of cells. In addition, the presence of dissociated ions such as sodium and chloride allow the sorting system to impart an electrical charge to droplets of the liquid.
If the cells are to undergo an intrinsic analysis, the creation of a single cell suspension is the only requirement before analysis. If the cells are to undergo an extrinsic analysis, labeling of the cells occurs before placement in the flow cytometer. Often, the correct concentration of the fluorescent label is simply added to the single cell suspension.
The flow cytometer transports cells to the flow chamber in a liquid flow called the sample flow. The sample flow is injected into the center of the sheath flow in the flow chamber. The concentric liquids allow rapid transportation of the cells and provide a method for accurate and precise localization of the cells during measurement at the interrogation point.
1.4.3 THE ILLUMINATION AND DETECTION SYSTEM
The illumination and detection system illuminates the cells with a very bright light and detects each cell's interaction with that light. Sensors detect light scattered from the surfaces and inner structure of the cell, and fluorescence signals emitted from the labeled characteristics of the cell.
These tasks are accomplished with lasers, photodiodes, and photomultiplier tubes. At the interrogation point, a tightly focused beam of very bright light illuminates the cells. Usually, cytometric illumination sources are lasers. The light scatters from the surface of each cell and from structures inside the cell. The light also excites any fluorescent stains in the cell and causes them to fluoresce.
A photodiode detects the light scattered from the cell surfaces and a series of photomultiplier tubes detects the various fluorescence wavelengths emitted from labeled cellular components. In some types of analyses, photomultiplier tubes also detect scattered light from cellular components.
A series of optical filters and dichroic mirrors guide illumination source light, scattered light, and the fluorescence emission from labeled components into the photomultiplier tubes. The filters and mirrors separate and direct different wavelengths of light into separate photomultiplier tubes. This separation of individual wavelengths into dedicated photosensors allows the cytometer to detect the amplitude of each wavelength, and thus, the relative quantity of the labeled characteristic in each cell.
The light emitted from the interrogation point may be light scattered from the edge of the cell, light scattered from cellular components within the cell, or fluorescence emitted from labeled cellular components. Both photodiodes and photomultiplier tubes emit analog electrical signals that are proportional to the light received from the interrogation point.
1.4.4 THE DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM
In the data collection and analysis system, the electrical signals from the photosensors undergo amplification, digitization, and storage on floppy or hard disk. A dedicated computer then presents a frequency distribution of the data for interpretation.
Transampedance amplification converts the electrical current output of the sensors into electrical voltage in preparation for digitization. Analog to digital converters convert the analog voltage signals to digital representations of the signals. The signals are sent to a computer, where tape, floppy disk, or hard disk media store these digital representations of the analog signals for future reference and analysis.
Interpretation of the data employs statistical analysis or a graphical display called a histogram. The computer retrieves the data stored in the cytometer's memory and performs mathematical or non-mathematical analyses for redisplay or printing. This allows the operator to reproduce analyses or perform new analyses on old data.
1.4.5 THE SORTING SYSTEM
The sorting system uses the population data collected by the data collection and analysis system to isolate subpopulations of cells. Selection of a subpopulation for sorting occurs after cytometric analysis of the complete population.
A single channel pulse height analyzer is set to match the waveform of the cells desired for sorting. The operator replaces the population in the delivery system which returns the cells to the interrogation point. As each cell passes through the interrogation point, the waveform it generates is electronically compared with the waveform in the single channel pulse height analyzer. If the waveforms match, the cell is selected for sorting.
As the cells pass out of the interrogation point, a piezoelectric material vibrates the flow, breaking it into droplets. A charging collar charges the droplets that contain cells selected for sorting with an electrostatic charge as they break off of the flow. Finally, pair of electrostatically charged plates deflects the charged droplets that contain selected cells into separate collection vessels.
Chapter 3, page 57-58, sample chapter summary.
Proper sample preparation is essential to the correct collection and analysis of data in flow cytometry. The creation of single cell suspensions, elimination of sources of error, and proper labeling of cell characteristics laid the foundation for all cytometric analyses.
THE SINGLE CELL SUSPENSION AND LABELING
The first step of sample preparation is the creation of a single cell suspension. The single cell suspension permits the transportation of cells in concentric liquid flows that provide positional certainty. The cells may also undergo chemical treatment to label cell characteristics of interest, and to remove any molecules that might cause a spurious result. The fluorescent molecules bind stoichiometrically to cellular characteristics so their fluorescence emission is proportional to the quantity of the labeled characteristic. If the fluorescent molecule does not form a stable stoichiometric complex with the characteristic, the proportionality of light emission from the characteristic will be lost.
LIGHT AND LUMINESCENCE
Light has higher energy when the wavelength is short and the frequency is high. Coherent light is in phase and monochromatic light of a single wavelength. Luminescence describes all light emission except incandescence (light emitted from a heated object), and chemiluminescent molecules emit fluorescence or phosphorescence when they absorb light of the proper wavelength.
FLUORESCENCE AND PHOSPHORESCENCE
Certain molecules with free electrons in double bonds, amino groups, hydroxyl groups, aromatic rings, or heterocyclic rings absorb light, causing their electrons to move into higher energy levels. Fluorescence is rapid, high energy emission of light as electrons move from the S1 energy level to the S0 ground state. Phosphorescence is slow, low energy emission of light as electrons move from the T1 triplet energy level to the S0 ground state. Phosphorescence may continue for as long as ten minutes after the exciting radiation has ceased, while fluorescence ceases within 10E-7 seconds.
FLUORESCENCE QUANTUM YIELD
The amount of fluorescence a molecule emits in response to radiation absorption is its fluorescence quantum yield. If a molecule fluoresces without electrons proceeding through radiationless transitions or intersystem crossing, the quantum efficiency is 1. If energy is lost to quenching mechanisms, the quantum efficiency is less than 1. Flexible fluorescent molecules such as propidium iodide, exhibit an increase in quantum efficiency when bound to a cell characteristic.
Quenching occurs when molecules lose their energy to other molecules through one of four mechanisms: self quenching, energy transfer, charge transfer, or intersystem crossing.
BACKGROUND FLUORESCENCE AND AUTOFLUORESCENCE
Spurious data collection may be due to background fluorescence or cell characteristics that are autofluorescent. Background fluorescence may occur as a result of fluorescent molecules binding debris or from fluorescent fixatives. Fixatives with very low fluorescence such as paraformaldehyde can decrease background fluorescence.
Becker, R.S., Theory and Interpretation of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1969.
Geacintov, N.E., Swenberg, C.E., Magnetic Field Effects in Organic Molecular Spectroscopy, in
Lumb M.D., Luminescence Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York, 1978.
Parker, C.A., Photoluminescence of Solutions, Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1968.
Rhys-Williams, A.T., An Introduction to Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Perkin-Elmer.
Shapiro, H.M., Practical Flow Cytometry, Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, 1988.
-- End Sample Excerpts --
Introduction to Flow Cytometry is a detailed introductory textbook for beginning student of flow cytometry. It is designed, notated, and written to help the reader rapidly learn the founding principles of flow cytometry, and should be useful to students, teachers, rabid insatiable learners, and anyone else who wishes to learn flow cytometric principles rapidly.
Thank you for your interest in Introduction to Flow Cytometry.
Contact ATP for more information about Introduction to Flow Cytometry, our electronic document services, or any other subject.
ATP Products: Sample Products
Statistics suggest that only about one in ten new products is successful and the current global fiscal environment makes the design, development, and launching of new products particularly challenging at this time.
Applied Technology Products has already attempted to develop many products and is launching the development of new products regularly. Previous attempts to launch products - and the manufacturing that accompanies them - have led to the creation of numerous documents capable of demonstrating the depth, detail, and documentation capabilities of our company.
Please refer to the documents below communicating ATP designs in disclosures to large corporations, grant applications, patent applications, and proof of concept spreadsheets etc. If you are interested in one or more of these products, please contact us.
Alternative energy devices are becoming increasingly important in a world challenged by greenhouse gas pollution. Applied Technology Products has a number of alternative energy devices under development including numerous OEM and retrofittable devices for sustainable housing and many other unique approaches to addressing the world's problem with fossil fuels.
ATP is developing technologies to prevent the release and remove CO2 from the atmosphere and seeks partners in their development. ATP can design low cost devices to provide low cost passive and active solar heating for your home as well as numerous other approaches to advance alternative energy.
Aviation technology was one of the first areas in which ATP attempted to launch a product. Recognizing a market vacuum in the area of private aircraft safety, ATP has developed two devices to provide general aviation deicing.
In 2001, ATP was invited to submit a proposal to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts program. While ATP's response to the NASA program was not chosen for funding, the project has resulted in the creation of several new engine designs which should be cleaner and more efficient than today's engines.
ATP's current interest in aviation revolves around the design and development of a emissions-free airliner and mechanisms to retrofit the existing fleet of kerosene turbine airliners.
The president of Applied Technology Products has an extensive background in biotechnology having completed a Master of Basic Science degree from the University of Colorado focused in analytical cytometry. One of the first biotechnology projects that Applied Technology worked upon was a means for the detection and destruction of tumors less than 5 cm in diameter.
The IMAGRAD system was designed to be an integrated diagnostic and treatment pharmaceutical/device that detected the presence of tumors less than 5 cm in diameter and allowed immediate subsequent treatment employing alpha particles released locally to the detected small tumor.
ATP is also interested in the development of analytical cytometry devices that are radical advancements on today's flow cytometers. ATP is currently working on two new designs for flow analysis of biological materials and is very interested in lichens.
Computer science and especially nanotechnology is an area of special interest for Applied Technology Products. ATP has designed an optical transistor, a new type of high speed bus for existing chip based electronics and a number ultra high speed optical switching devices. Most of these devices are in early stage development and will require extensive, science based development.
Applied Technology Product's President, Groff M. Schroeder worked in emergency medical services for 17 years including employment as a firefighter. ATP has developed numerous designs that should be of use in emergency services such as automated firefighting equipment, bomb attenuation equipment, and improved bunker gear.
Fire fighting is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. ATP has a number of designs for automated firefighting equipment for use in the fighting of fires to make the job less dangerous and more efficient.
Explosions cause a great deal of damage every year. ATP has designed a series of lightweight portable products for use by bomb squads and airlines that allow shrapnel and shock waves associated with bomb detonation to be contained.
Improved Bunker Gear
Every year firefighters are injured in the line of duty. ATP has designed a new type of active garment to protect firefighters. The garment could also be very useful in racing and other endeavors where fire and traumatic forces might be encountered.
The Internet has become one of, if not the most important information resources in the world. ATP has several products that employ Internet communications.
Online News Information Service
Perhaps the most important foundation of a free society is unfettered access to information. The Online News Information Service provides users click access to categorized news stories from all over the world. The goal of the project is provide news consumers with easy access to news stories by category without being required to search numerous news sites and archives by hand. The site operates by monitoring news web sites and creating an index of the stories being published. The ONIS will allow news consumers to come to a single location to find and cross reference news stories.
Applied Technology Products is dedicated to the advancement of science. The company is pursuing a number of projects that can be considered as pure science.
Of particular interest are analytical cytology, complex systems, information theory, lichens and mosses and wide area interferometry.
ATP has numerous software products in various stages of development.
College Study Partner
Every year millions of new college students leave home for the first time for college. Each year a significant number of those students return after a single semester convinced that they are incapable of completing college. ATP designed, developed, and released (2006) a general purpose educational software program called Study Partner designed to help students learn.
Study Partner Version 2 is a major update nearing completion that includes a large number of useful new functions including text to speech capability and video game like functionality. ATP hopes to a major re-release of Stusy Partner early in the second quarter of 2012.
In addition to the launch of the software, ATP plans to relaunch the complimentary College Study Partner website, an academic resource that allows the purchase and download of the software as well as downloadable study guides, 'quiz partners,' etc. Together, the Study Partner website, software, and study guides constitute an 'Academic Software Environment' designed to help students 'stop cramming and start learning'.
Open Source Recycling
Many perfectly good software products have been removed from the market because they were unable to compete in markets in which monopoly influences make competition impossible unless the product is being given away. Examples include the personal information manager ECCO and the operating system BeOs. The goal of the operation would be to purchase defunct software products at fire sale prices and offer them as open source products on the web.
Educational/Safety Video Game
Many of today's video and computer games create excitement through the use of interpersonal violence and provide precious little educational value unless the goal is to train children to use weapons. In addition, modern driving education often ends after high school, and many states test their drivers only once in their lifetimes.
We propose the development of a video/computer game called "Crash Magnet." The game, which would be placed in video parlors and sold for home use, is a driving simulator with adjustable tolerance for failure to follow driving laws. At minimum tolerance, any deviation from driving laws such as speeding or failure to come to a full stop at a stop sign or traffic light results in a ticket or accident.
After an accident, the damage to the driver, occupants, vehicle and insurance coverage is displayed for the user. Expert users would gain experience with accident evasion techniques, become fully aware of driving laws, be capable of driving a car in full compliance with the laws and be fully aware of the costs of failing to follow driving regulations. This game might actually save the lives of teens who often appear unaware of how easy it is to become involved in an automobile accident and the almost always significant associated costs.
Applied Technology Products has numerous other products in various stages of development and new products are developed almost every day.
Contact ATP to learn more about these products or to have ATP create a product for you.
ATP Products: Study Partner
Study Partner is a general purpose study tool (and game) under development by Applied Technology Products for use by college students. Although previous versions of Study Partner did not sell as well as had been hoped, version 2.0 will deliver a number of extremely useful functions such as text to speech (to allow the software to ask the user questions while they are cleaning or doing other things) and game like functions (which are designed to make studying more fun). Study Partner 2.0 promises to be a much more functional study tool, and much more useful to students and others working to learn a body of material.
Please stand by...
Study Partner version 2 is nearing release!
Study Partner 2.0 is in final development now and should be shipping (at least in beta) in the first half of 2012.
Please contact ATP for more information about Study Partner, educational software, or educational gaming.